Technical appendix

The London Intelligence – Issue 2

Technical appendix

Key Stage 4 Results

These statistics from the Department for Education are for school pupils sitting exams at the end of Key Stage 4, or year 11.

Up to the academic year 2015/16, the headline indicator was the percentage of these pupils achieving 5 or more A*-C grade, including English and Maths. The headline indicators and grading system are in the process of being changed, however, so present a complicated picture – more information can be found here.

Attainment 8 (A8), for which 2016/17 is the first year this is being exclusively used (previous years shadowed the GCSE achievement proportions), gives a weighted score for eight subjects according to the new grading system (from best to worst, 9 to 1). English and Maths GCSEs are now graded 9-1, with further subjects changing over the coming years to 2019. Legacy GCSEs, which still use A*-G grading, have a converting points score tool to give a 9-1 score, see here. This changed in 2016/17 from 2015/16, which explains the drop in recorded attainment; see here.

Progress 8 (P8) is another new measure, which indicates the relative progress of pupils over the course of secondary school, in comparison to what is expected of similar pupils (those achieving similar KS2 results) nationally. A positive score means pupils make more progress than expected, a negative score means less. See here for more information on calculating A8 and P8 scores.

Key Stage 4 Destinations

These statistics from the Department for Education show the destinations of school pupils after the end of Key Stage 4, or year 11, into sustained education, employment or training (at least two terms). It is for the 2014/15 cohort going into destinations for the academic year 2015/16. The figures are obtained from matched administrative datasets – the Longitude Education Outcomes dataset. Until the release of data for the 2014/15 cohort, these were classified as experimental data. More information can be found here and here.

Key Stage 5 Results

These statistics show the results of average points score per entry for pupils sitting A-levels and other 16-18 (level 3) qualifications, supplied by all organisations awarding any qualifications. Level 3 qualifications are defined as qualifications that are at least the size of an A level (180 guided learning hours per year), such as a BTEC subsidiary diploma level 3. If a qualification is equal in size to 2 A levels it is counted as 2 substantial level 3 qualifications. The Average Points Score (APS) per entry is the headline measure, and gives weight to different qualifications; see here. For more information on methodology, see here.

Key Stage 5 Destinations

These statistics from the Department for Education show the destinations of school pupils after the end of Key Stage 5, or year 13, into sustained education, employment or training (at least two terms). It is for the 2014/15 cohort going into destinations for the academic year 2015/16. The figures are obtained from matched administrative datasets – the Longitude Education Outcomes dataset. Until the release of data for the 2014/15 cohort, these were classified as experimental data. More information can be found here and here.


These statistics are from the Department for Education and Education and Skills Funding Agency, originally sourced from the Individualised Learner Record.


The contextual data for undergraduate students in London universities comes from the Higher Education Funding Council for England’s Teaching Excellence Framework Two Year Data, published in June 2017.

National Insurance Number (NINo) Registrations

These statistics are a 100% extract of the volume of adult non-UK nationals registering within the UK for a National Insurance Number, which they need to work or claim benefits / tax credits. Figures are based on when the person registers on the HRMC Recording and PAYE system, which may be some time after they entered the UK. These statistics are not a direct measure of long-term inward migration, and have ‘national statistics’, not ‘official statistics’ status.


Workforce jobs is a quarterly measure of jobs in the UK by the ONS, and is the preferred measure of short term employment change by industry. A variety of outputs are produced, including industry, region, gender and full or part time status. It is a compound source from a range of employer surveys, household surveys, and administrative sources; it has a sample size of 83,400 nationally. The estimates are seasonally adjusted. More information can be found here.

For 2-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) breakdown, the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE) data was used. ASHE is based on a 1% sample of employee jobs, drawn from HM Revenue and Customs Pay As You Earn (PAYE) records. More information can be found here.


These figures are from the quarterly regional labour market reports produced by the ONS, and are based on an ILO definition of unemployment. The figures come from a combination of surveys of households and businesses, including the Labour Force Survey. The numbers are seasonally adjusted.


These figures estimate the proportion of 16-24 year olds who are not in education, employment or training, from the NEET Quarterly Brief produced by the Department for Education. Information comes from a variety of sources, including the Labour Force Survey, Participation SFR and Client Caseload Information. Margins of error are expressed as 95% Confidence Intervals. More information can be found here.

Purchasing Managers’ Index

The Regional PMI is compiled by IHS Markit for Lloyds Bank Commercial Banking. It compiles responses from over 1,200 private sector manufacturing and services firm, which is representative of the economy’s structure, and acts as a health check of business activity. The number is the seasonally adjusted proportion of those reporting positive responses, plus half of those reporting no change. A score of 50 indicates no change in activity on the previous month.

Commercial Property Vacancy

The commercial property figures are sourced from JLL’s Central London Office Market Report. Vacancy rates refer to the proportion of floor space that is unoccupied. Active demand relates to serious interest in commercial floor space, while take-up is the actual amount that is purchased or leased. More information can be found here.

International Visits

Data is from the International Passenger Survey (IPS), which collects data face to face with passengers passing through ports into and out of the UK. This determines location of stay, length of stay, and spend during stay. The London sample is around 20,000 per annum. More information about the IPS can be found here.

Foreign Direct Investment

The data is from London & Partners, and refers to FDI that they have helped with – mainly in the ICT, Financial Services, Business Services, Creative Industries and Retail sectors. The number of projects refers to each individual new venture made by a company. Be aware that one company may make multiple investment projects, these would be captured separately. The number of jobs created refers to the number of jobs expected to be created in the first year of operation of the project.

Public Transport Ridership

All ridership figures are automatically collected by Transport for London for different modes within the network. Periods do not have the same number of days/weekdays, and are not adjusted accordingly. It excludes retrospective adjustments to bus journeys.

House Price

The house prices come from the LSL/Acadata England & Wales House Price Index. It uses actual transaction prices based on Land Registry data, and is updated monthly. The most recent monthly price accounts for c. 38% of transactions, two months previously c. 88%, and almost all for three months previously. The recent months are supplemented by forecast results. House prices are seasonally and mix adjusted at the London, but not borough, level.

Experimental Rental Price Index

This index is calculated using actual rental data collected for the Valuation Office Agency, and shows the change in the price of renting residential property from private landlords. More information can be found here.

Households pipeline, starts and completions

Figures are sourced from administrative data as reported to the Department of Communities and Local Government. Starts and completion statistics for new build dwellings are taken from Table 235a from here.

The pipeline statistics are taken from the Home Builders Federation’s ‘Housing Pipeline Report’, and account for all new building planning approvals (units and projects) as recorded by HBF members (who provide around 80% of the new dwellings in the UK each year). More details about what is included and excluded can be found in the ‘notes’ section here.

Issues Index

Ipsos MORI’s Issues Index is conducted monthly and provides an overview of the key issues concerning the country. Ipsos MORI interviewed a representative quota sample of 965 adults aged 18+ across Great Britain. The questions are spontaneous – i.e. respondents are not prompted with any answers. Ipsos MORI’s Capibus vehicle was used for this survey. Interviews were conducted face-to-face in-home between 9 and 20 June 2017 at 223 sampling points across Great Britain. Data are weighted to match the profile of the population.

Attractions Monitor

The figures presented here are for the number of unique visits to 63 of London’s top attractions: museums, stadia, galleries, monuments and more. Data is collected by the individual attractions, before being sent to and compiled by London and Partners.


These figures are for raw administrative crime data as supplied by Metropolitan Police Service and the Mayor’s Office for Policing and Crime (MOPAC). Total Notifiable Offences (TNOs) refer to all statutorily notifiable offences, as per Home Office Counting rules. More detail on violent crime definitions can be found here. The knife crime definitions follows previous Home Office guidance.


Data on homelessness is compiled from two sources. Combined Homelessness and Information Network (CHAIN) is a multi-agency database recording information about rough sleepers and the wider street population in London. This included both people who have been seen rough sleeping by outreach workers and people who have a ‘street lifestyle’ such as street drinking or begging – often referred to as ‘wider street population’. Many people who have a street lifestyle are also rough sleepers, but a minority are not. The second source is DCLG table 784a – Local authorities’ action under homeless provisions of housing act (quarterly data). See here.


GP referral figures figures are from administrative data submitted by NHS Trusts and Independent providers treating NHS patients for the Quarterly Activity Return. More information on these statistics can be found here.

The A&E figures refer to administrative data which measures the total number of attendances in the calendar month for all A&E types, including Minor Injury Units and Walk-in Centres, and of these, the number discharged, admitted or transferred within four hours of arrival. More information on this can be found here.

Delayed discharge figures are from the Monthly Situation Report, which collects data on the total delayed days during the month for all patients delayed throughout the month. More information can be found here.

Air pollution

The London Air Quality Network (LAQN) was developed by King’s College London in 1993. It comprises over 100 continuous monitoring sites in the majority of London’s boroughs. You can see more about the LAQN here.