Technical Appendix

The London Intelligence – Issue 6

Technical Appendix

Workforce jobs

Workforce jobs is a quarterly measure of jobs in the UK by the ONS, and is the preferred measure of short term employment change by industry. A variety of outputs are produced, including industry, region, gender and full or part time status. It is a compound source from a range of employer surveys, household surveys, and administrative sources; it has a sample size of 83,400 nationally. The estimates are seasonally adjusted. More information can be found here.


These figures are from the quarterly regional labour market reports produced by the ONS, and are based on an ILO definition of unemployment. The figures come from a combination of surveys of households and businesses, including the Labour Force Survey. The numbers are seasonally adjusted.

Purchasing Managers’ Index

The Regional PMI is compiled by IHS Markit for NatWest. It compiles responses from over 1,200 private sector manufacturing and services firm, which is representative of the economy’s structure, and acts as a health check of business activity. The number is the seasonally adjusted proportion of those reporting positive responses, plus half of those reporting no change. A score of 50 indicates no change in activity on the previous month.

Commercial Property Vacancy

The commercial property figures are sourced from JLL’s Central London Office Market Report. Vacancy rates refer to the proportion of floor space that is unoccupied. Active demand relates to serious interest in commercial floor space, while take-up is the actual amount that is purchased or leased. More information can be found here.

National Insurance Number (NINo) Registrations

These statistics are a 100% extract of the volume of adult non-UK nationals registering within the UK for a National Insurance Number, which they need to work or claim benefits / tax credits. Figures are based on when the person registers on the HRMC Recording and PAYE system, which may be some time after they entered the UK. These statistics are not a direct measure of long-term inward migration, and have ‘national statistics’, not ‘official statistics’ status.

House Prices and Transactions

The house price and transaction figures come from the LSL/Acadata England & Wales House Price Index. It uses actual transaction volumes and prices based on Land Registry data, and is updated monthly. The most recent monthly price (September 2018) accounts for c. 38% of transactions, two months previously c. 88%, and almost all for three months previously. The recent months are supplemented by forecast results. House prices are seasonally and mix adjusted at the London, but not borough level or with property type changes.

Rental Price Index

This index is calculated using actual rental data collected for the Valuation Office Agency, and shows the change in the price of renting residential property from private landlords. More information can be found here.

Rental Market Data

Rental market data is supplied by Dataloft, based on rent paid data supplied under contract from a leading tenant referencing company. The large and growing dataset of rent-paid transactions includes detailed information on both tenants and tenancies. It includes three years of historic data with a monthly addition of some 15,000–20,000 new records. The data has been rigorously collected by Rent4Sure. The dataset represents around 15% of all rental transactions, with up to 22% in some regions and extends across England and Wales.

Line by line data allows for extensive analysis of tenant profile and market trends. The annual change in rents is based on achieved rents. Incomes analysis shows individual tenant incomes against the rent or, in the case of sharers, against their share of the rent. Zonal changes are based on London travelcard zones.

Planning decisions

Planning decisions are based on figures produced by the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government, and published in table P135 here, sourced from General Development Control (District) PS1/PS2 returns.

New build starts and completions

Figures are sourced from administrative data as reported to the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government. Starts and completion statistics for new build dwellings are taken from Table 253a from here.

Public Transport Ridership

All ridership figures are automatically collected by Transport for London for different modes within the network. Periods do not have the same number of days/weekdays, and are not adjusted accordingly. It excludes retrospective adjustments to bus journeys.

Road Safety

The data is for road traffic collisions and casualties occurring on the public highway, involving personal injury in the Greater London area, as published in the Casualties in Greater London factsheet. Figures are reported to the Metropolitan and City of London police services during the reporting period, in accordance with the Stats 19 national reporting system. These figures are provisional estimates and subject to change.

Figures for road traffic collisions from September 2016 onwards have been reported by the Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) using the new Case Overview and Preparation Application (COPA). The City of London Police Service (CoLP) adopted the Department for Transport (DfT) Collision Reporting and SHaring (CRASH) system in September 2015. COPA and CRASH systems use a new method od assessing the severity of injury sustained in collisions, whereby Police officers record the type of injury suffered rather than assumptions about the severity of the injury. The recording system then assigns an injury severity according to the type of injury recorded. This contrasts with the previous system where officers recorded whether, in their judgment, an injury was ‘slight’ or ‘serious’. The use of these systems has resulted in improved accuracy in the recording of unjury type, with more injuries being classified as serious rather than slight.

International Visits

Data is from the International Passenger Survey (IPS), which collects data face to face with passengers passing through ports into and out of the UK. This determines location of stay, length of stay, and spend during stay. The London sample is around 20,000 per annum. More information about the IPS can be found here. More information on recently changes to the survey methodology can be found here.

Attractions Monitor

The figures presented here are for the number of unique visits to 63 of London’s top attractions: museums, stadia, galleries, monuments and more. Data is collected by the individual attractions, before being sent to and compiled by London and Partners.

Issues Index

Ipsos MORI’s Issues Index is conducted monthly and provides an overview of the key issues concerning the country. Ipsos MORI interviewed a representative quota sample of 965 adults aged 18+ across Great Britain. The questions are spontaneous – i.e. respondents are not prompted with any answers. Ipsos MORI’s Capibus vehicle was used for this survey. Interviews were conducted face-to-face  in-home between 3 and 14 August 2018 at 169 sampling points across Great Britain. Data are weighted to match the profile of the population.


These figures are for raw administrative crime data as supplied by Metropolitan Police Service and the Mayor’s Office for Policing and Crime (MOPAC).

Total Notifiable Offences (TNOs) refer to all statutorily notifiable offences, as per Home Office Counting rules. More detail on violent crime definitions can be found here.

Rough sleeping

Rough sleeping data is from the Combined Homelessness and Information Network (CHAIN) – a multi-agency database recording information about rough sleepers and the wider street population in London. This included both people who have been seen rough sleeping by outreach workers and people who have a ‘street lifestyle’ such as street drinking or begging – often referred to as ‘wider street population’. Many people who have a street lifestyle are also rough sleepers, but a minority are not.


Referral and attendance figures are from administrative data submitted by NHS Trusts and Independent providers treating NHS patients for the Quarterly Activity Return. More information on these statistics can be found here.

The A&E figures refer to administrative data which measures the total number of attendances in the calendar month for all A&E types, including Minor Injury Units and Walk-in Centres, and of these, the number discharged, admitted or transferred within four hours of arrival. More information on this can be found here.

Delayed discharge figures ar\e from the Monthly Situation Report, which collects data on the total delayed days during the month for all patients delayed throughout the month. More information can be found here, and here.

Air pollution

The London Air Quality Network (LAQN) was developed by King’s College London in 1993. It comprises over 100 continuous monitoring sites in the majority of London’s boroughs. You can see more about the LAQN here.

Key Stage 4 Achievements

KS4 achievement statistics are sourced from the Department for Education, and are provisional results for state school pupils who sat KS4 exams at the end of the 2017/18 academic year.

Attainment 8 (A8) gives a weighted score for eight subjects according to the new grading system (from best to worst, 9 to 1). English and Maths GCSEs are graded 9-1, with further subjects changing over the coming years to 2019. Legacy GCSEs, which still use A*-G grading, have a converting points score tool to give a 9-1 score, see here. This changed in 2016/17 from 2015/16, which explains the drop in recorded attainment; see here.

Progress 8 (P8) is another new measure, which indicates the relative progress of pupils over the course of secondary school, in comparison to what is expected of similar pupils (those achieving similar KS2 results) nationally. A positive score means pupils make more progress than expected, a negative score means less. More information about the KS4 marking system can be read here.

In 2018, Attainment 8 had a maximum point score of 90, compared to a maximum of 87 in 2017, as a result of the phased introduction of reformed GCSE’s. This difference should be considered when considering any change in Attainment 8 scores between 2017 and 2018.

Disadvantage and non-disadvantaged is based on a measure of free school mean receipt.

Key Stage 5 Achievements

These statistics show the results of average points score per entry for state-funded pupils sitting A-levels and other 16-18 (level 3) qualifications, supplied by all organisations awarding any qualifications. Level 3 qualifications are defined as qualifications that are at least the size of an A level (180 guided learning hours per year), such as a BTEC subsidiary diploma level 3. If a qualification is equal in size to 2 A levels it is counted as 2 substantial level 3 qualifications. The Average Points Score (APS) per entry is the headline measure, and gives weight to different qualifications; see here. For more information on methodology, see here.

Key Stage 4 and Key Stage 5 Destinations

KS4 destination statistics from the Department for Education show the destination of school pupils at the end of KS4, or year 11, into sustained education, employment or training (at least two terms). It is for the 2015/16 cohort going into destinations for the academic year 2016/17. These figures are obtained from matched administrative datasets – the Longitude Education Outcomes dataset. Until the release of data for the 2014/15 cohort, these were classified as experimental data.

KS5 destinations from the Department of Education show the destinations of school pupils after the end of Key Stage 5 into sustained education, employment or training (at least two terms).  It is for the 2015/16 cohort going into destinations for the academic year 206/17. The figures are obtained from matched administrative datasets – the Longitude Education Outcomes dataset. Until the release of data for the 2014/15 cohort, these were classified as experimental data

More information on KS4 and KS5 destinations can be found here.


These statistics are from the Department for Education and Education and Skills Funding Agency, originally sourced from the Individualised Learner Record. Data for the 2017 to 2018 academic year covers figures reported up to quarter 3 of the academic year reported to date (August 2017 to April 2018).